Character Encoding is like utf-8 etc. Code Page is used instead of character encoding in SAP and code page is a 4 digit number.
Go to Tx- SNLS and you can find what the code page for a particular language.
We can use the FM- SCP_CODEPAGE_FOR_LANGUAGE to get the Cod Page for any language.
Test the Fm in Tx- SE37 and you can find the code page value for each language.
Also We have ABAP Class- CL_ABAP_CODEPAGE which provides various method to get the code page related values.
Method: CURRENT provides the current code page used. Test and see the result.
Method : FOR_LANGUAGE( ) – returns the code page used for that language.